The Organic Act, of 1890, provided for the establishment of six counties in the Unassigned Lands. What would become Logan County was first known as County No. 1. Guthrie was one of the two original locations planned for land offices for the opening of the unassigned lands for settlement. It was also designated to be the capital of the Oklahoma Territory. On April 22, 1889, Guthrie was formed with the first land run opening the Oklahoma Territory. In less than 24 hours the population of County No. 1 increased to 10,000 people with Guthrie becoming so large that it needed to be spilt into four separate communities to stay in compliance with the rule that no settlement could exceed 320 acres. As a result, Guthrie was divided into Guthrie, East Guthrie, West Guthrie, and Capital Hill. Guthrie was the Territorial Capital of the Oklahoma Territory and later it served as the first Capital of the State of Oklahoma.
The name was changed to Logan County after the first election in the territory on August 5, 1890. The county was named after Major General John A. Logan, a popular Union general during the Civil War. By 1900, the county population reached 25,563 people, with a breakdown of 77% white and 23% black. The African American population was on the rise due to E. P. McCabe forming the all black town of Langston and the encouragement of black immigration societies. Several other towns, which were formed in the county's early days, still exist today, while others have faded away over time.
The county population continued to rise until Guthrie lost the capital seat to Oklahoma City in 1910. After 1910, the population of the county decreased until new subdivisions started to attract more people to the county. The 2010 census shows the population of the county to be 41,848. Guthrie remains the county seat. Guthrie's Downtown has been designated as a National Landmark Historic District and there are several other national register properties in the county.